The African Union suspends Sudan’s membership .. Who preceded it? Find out the list of countries and the reasons
On May 25, 1963, the Organization of African Unity was established before the leaders of the African Organization countries issued a joint declaration in September 1999 at their summit held in the Libyan city of Sirte calling for the establishment of the African Union, which officially replaced the organization on May 26 2002.
Days before Sudan’s recent coup and suspension of its membership in the union, the Chairperson of the African Union Commission, Moussa Faki, condemned the military interventions in the political arena on the black continent, and expressed his concern about what he described as the manipulation of constitutions and unconstitutional changes of governments.
Post suspension penalty
The Federation, which is headquartered in the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa, and includes 55 member states, its founding law consists of 33 articles and its fourth article states the rejection and condemnation of any unconstitutional change of governments, in an explicit reference to the opposition to military coups that occur in the countries of the brown continent from time to time. .
According to the Constitutive Act, one of the most important objectives of the African Union is the consolidation of the democratic system and its institutions, the promotion of popular participation, good governance and the rule of law, and the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Article 30 of the Constitutive Act states under the clause “suspension of participation” that “Governments which come to power by unconstitutional means are not permitted to participate in the activities of the Federation”.
March 16, 2009: Military forces on the island of Madagascar stormed and seized the presidential palace in the capital after the opposition leader called on the army to arrest President Marc Ravalomanana.
The army-backed opposition announced that it has appointed opposition leader Andrei Rajoelina, 34, as head of a transitional government for a two-year term.
March 20, 2009: The African Union decided to suspend Madagascar from the union, considering that what happened in the country falls within the framework of an “unconstitutional change of government”, while the Security Troika of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) said it would urge its members to impose sanctions on Madagascar at their next meeting.
The Union gave Madagascar 6 months to restore a constitutional government, most likely through elections, stressing that in the event of non-compliance, the Union will consider imposing sanctions on the island’s leaders.
April 12, 2012: A military coup took place in Guinea-Bissau led by General Mamadou Toure Koroma, Deputy Chief of Staff, about two weeks before the second round of the presidential election contested between Carlos Gomez Junior and Kumba Yala.
April 17, 2012: The African Union suspended Guinea-Bissau’s membership in the African Organization following the coup that took place in the West African country.
Ramadan Lamamra, Commissioner for Peace and Security Council of the African Union, said, “The Council decided, with immediate implementation, to suspend Guinea-Bissau’s participation in all activities of the African Union until constitutional order is restored in the country.”
An agreement was finally signed that led to the selection of the third-place candidate in the elections, Manuel Serevo Namajo, as the country’s interim president. The presidential elections were postponed for two years, and an interim government was assigned to run Guinea-Bissau in the meantime.
Central Africa.. war and the overthrow of the president 2013
March 25, 2013: After the outbreak of war between the government and the Seleka (rebellion movement), which seized the capital and ousted President François Bozize, the Union suspended the membership of the Central African Republic.
The union imposed sanctions (i.e. travel restrictions and asset freezes) on Seleka leaders, including its self-proclaimed president, Michel Djotodia.
Egypt .. Revolution 2013
July 5, 2013: The Peace and Security Council of the African Union suspended Egypt’s membership, following the army’s coup against the late President Mohamed Morsi, after a year in power, following democratic presidential elections in Egypt after the January 25, 2011 revolution.
June 17, 2014: The Council decided to return Egypt to its activities in the African Union, and the decision was passed unanimously by the 15 members of the African Peace and Security Council, and the meeting was held at the level of permanent delegates.
Egypt participated in the 23rd African Union Summit in Malabo (Equatorial Guinea) on 26-27 June 2014.
February 10, 2019: Egyptian President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi assumed the rotating presidency of the African Union at the beginning of the 32nd summit of the Union held at the Union headquarters in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa, under the slogan “Towards durable solutions to forced displacement in Africa.”
Burkina Faso..they kidnapped the president
September 16, 2015: Soldiers from the presidential guard loyal to former President Blaise Compaore stormed a cabinet meeting and kidnapped interim President Michel Kafando and his prime minister, Jacob Isaac Zida, thus disrupting a transitional period that was due to end with elections within days.
September 17, 2015: General Gilbert Diendere – a former intelligence chief – is appointed head of the military council.
September 18, 2015: The African Union suspended Burkina Faso’s membership and imposed sanctions on the leaders of the military coup. The coup leaders gave 4 days to restore the interim government or face a travel ban and asset freeze.
Mali..Two coups within 9 months
August 2020: A military alliance ousts President Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta from power after months of turmoil following parliamentary election irregularities and the arrest of opposition leader Soumila Cisse.
The African Union suspended Mali’s membership, but reinstated it a few weeks later, following the announcement of a new civilian-led transitional administration.
May 24, 2021: The army arrested interim President Bah Ndao and Prime Minister Mokhtar Wan and pressured them to resign, impeding a political transition through democratic elections.
Colonel Asimi Gueta, head of the military junta that led the August 2020 coup, declared himself interim president.
June 2, 2021: The African Union suspends Mali again, threatening sanctions if junta leaders do not return power to civilians.
Guinea .. the coup of September 2021
September 5, 2021: Elements of the army’s special task unit led by Mamadi Domboe carried out a military coup and arrested Guinean President Alpha Condé, the country’s first democratically elected president, in 2010, after a shooting in the capital, Conakry.
– The coup leader announced in a recorded message the dissolution of the government, the suspension of the constitution and the closure of the country’s borders.
The African Union announced the suspension of Guinea’s membership, and the decision included suspending the participation of the Republic of Guinea in all activities of the African Union and its decision-making bodies.
– The union’s decision was issued a day after the Economic Community of West African States also suspended Guinea’s membership, and announced that it would send a mission to the country to assess the situation.
– The African Union Political, Peace and Security Council urged the Chairperson of the Union Commission, Moussa Faki, to “engage with the relevant authorities in the region” to find a way out of the crisis.
Sudan’s coup…deep concern
October 25, 2021: The Sudanese army arrested Prime Minister Abdullah Hamdok, most of the cabinet members, civilians from the Sovereignty Council, and many officials and media workers, amid talk of a military coup being implemented.
October 27, 2021: The African Union condemned what it described as the Sudanese army’s seizure of power, saying that it rejects the unconstitutional change of government, expressing its deep concern about the military coup in the country.
– The African Peace and Security Council decided to suspend Sudan’s participation in all activities until the return of the civilian-led authority, and considered that the actions of the President of the Sovereign Council, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, Abdel Fattah Al-Burhan, threaten to impede the progress of the transitional process, plunge Sudan into a cycle of violence, and represent an affront to common values and democratic standards. of the African Union.
– The Council decided to send a mission to Sudan with the aim of finding a solution to the political crisis, and urged the Sudanese army to respect its constitutional mandate and create favorable conditions for a successful transition. It also urged the Sudanese parties to commit to implementing all provisions of the Constitutional Declaration Document and the Juba Agreement.
The Council appealed to all Sudanese parties to give priority to the higher interests of the country and its people, to remain calm, to refrain from incitement to violence, to immediately resume dialogue, to save the democratic transition and to reach a sustainable solution to the challenges.
– The African Peace Council stressed that the Political Declaration and the Constitutional Decree represent the only viable approach in Sudan, and stressed the need for a civilian-led and consensual transition in the country.
It welcomed the release of Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok, and called for the immediate and unconditional release of all detainees.
Membership Suspension..other reasons
The Constitutive Act of the African Union, in its Article 23, stipulates the imposition of sanctions, that the Union determines the appropriate penalties to be imposed on any member state that fails to pay its contributions to the budget of the Union, as follows:
– deprived of the right to speak at meetings, to vote, to present candidates for any position in the Federation or to benefit from the activities or obligations of the Federation.
Furthermore, any Member State that does not comply with the decisions and policies of the Union may be subject to other penalties such as depriving it of establishing transport and communications links with other Member States or any other measures of a political or economic nature determined by the Union.
June 21, 2020: The African Union Commission suspended South Sudan’s membership due to Juba’s non-payment of its financial contributions for 3 consecutive years.
– The South Sudan Mission in Ethiopia informed the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in a diplomatic telegram of imposing sanctions on them for not paying their contributions.
The Embassy of the State of South Sudan in Ethiopia said that Juba’s arrears are estimated at about $9 million.