Latest international climate report: The past seven years were the hottest ever

The last seven years may be the hottest ever, according to for a new report For the World Meteorological Organization, while data for the first nine months of this year indicate that it will be between the fifth and seventh in the order of the warmest year on record.

The organization’s interim report on the state of the global climate for 2021, released in conjunction with the launch of the World Climate Summit in Glasgow “COP26”, provides a glimpse of the most important key climate indicators of the current year, as well as the social and economic impacts.

High concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere

وبحسب press release According to the report issued by the organization on the report, the concentrations of greenhouse gases reached new records in 2020, and the level of carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere reached 413.2 parts per million, which is about one and a half times higher than the levels in the pre-industrial period. While the level of methane in the atmosphere has doubled two and a half times since that period.

The average global temperature for 2021 was above the average for the period between 1850 and 1900 by about 1.09 degrees Celsius.

The data sets that the World Meteorological Organization used to prepare the report place the year 2021 – which was less warm than previous years due to the La Niña phenomenon – ranked sixth or seventh among the warmest years in the world, but the ranking may change at the end of the year, according to the report. .

The average temperature in 2021 is higher than the average for the period between 1850 and 1900 (WMO)

Ocean warming and sea level rise

According to the statement, the report recorded the continued warming of the oceans to depths of up to two thousand meters, setting records in 2019 and 2020. Most of the oceans experienced at least one “strong” marine heatwave sometime in 2021.

The ocean’s absorption of about 23% of annual emissions of carbon dioxide has increased its acidity, thus reducing its capacity to store this gas.

Arctic sea ice was below the 1981-2010 average at its highest level in March. Although the September minimum was greater than in recent years, it remained well below the average recorded in previous decades.

The report recorded the acceleration of the melting of glaciers in North America during the past two decades, and the phenomenon was exacerbated this year by the exceptionally hot and dry summer in the region, which led to rain for the first time in modern history over the ice caps in Greenland.

The report showed that the pace of sea level rise due to the accelerated loss of ice mass reached 4.4 millimeters annually during the period between 2013 and 2021, which is double the average rise that was between 1993 and 2002.

Ice melt acceleration raises sea level (Max Pixels)

extreme phenomena

Various regions of the world witnessed exceptional heat waves during the months of June and July, many of which broke records in temperature exceeding 4 degrees Celsius. In the Canadian province of British Columbia, the temperature reached 49.6 degrees Celsius for the first time in June.

The Mediterranean region also recorded in August a severe temperature of 48.8 degrees Celsius in the Italian island of Sicily, a temporary European record, and 50.3 degrees Celsius in Kairouan (Tunisia), according to the report.

These heat waves were accompanied by many major fires in California, Algeria, southern Turkey and Greece in particular, which led to the destruction of hundreds of thousands of hectares of forests.

Many areas experienced unprecedented flooding this year (Max Pixel)

On the other hand, unusually heavy rains fell in different parts of the world this year, which led to devastating floods. For example, the Chinese city of Chengzhou, on July 20, received 720 millimeters of rain (more than the annual average) in a few hours, resulting in flash floods that caused more than 302 deaths, and great economic losses.

Western Europe – especially Germany and Belgium – experienced one of the most severe floods ever in mid-July, causing landslides and killing more than 200 people.

Simultaneously, severe drought prevailed in many subtropical regions of South America for the second year in a row, and rainfall was well below average in most of these regions, resulting in significant agricultural losses and lower river levels.

The concentration of global warming gases continues to rise (Pixehir)

Social, economic and environmental repercussions

According to the report, in the past ten years, the frequency of conflicts has increased, in parallel with the increase in the average incidence of extreme weather events. The combined effects of these risks, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, have increased hunger and thus undermined decades of progress towards improving food security, according to WMO experts.

Ecosystems have also deteriorated at an unprecedented rate, and this deterioration is expected to accelerate in the coming decades, limiting the environment’s ability to support human well-being and weakening its resilience to adapt to climate changes.

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