Khedive Tawfiq, the ruler who was accused by the sheikhs of Al-Azhar of betraying Egypt

Cairo- When Tawfiq Pasha assumed the sanctuary of the Khedive, Orabi was promoted to the rank of admiral in June 1879, and the Khedive issued his order to do so while he was in Alexandria. Amirlay, the 4th Infantry, whose center was Cairo, held this position until the outbreak of the revolution in 1881.

Thus, the historian Abdel Rahman Al-Rafi’i tells in his book “The Rebel Leader Ahmed Orabi” about the relationship between Khedive Tawfiq and the leader Orabi, and describes the Orabi revolution as not only a military one, but rather a national revolution in which all classes of the people participated, and Orabi was a main reason for the revolution because he broadcast In the ranks of the officers there was a spirit of solidarity, and the ranks advanced to present his demands to the rulers, and Tawfiq faced the officers’ revolution with hesitation, sometimes he met them with leniency and sometimes with severity and firmness.

Al-Rafi’i also confirms that the Egyptian people suffered from injustice, and a poor system of government, “there was no justice, no law, and no judiciary that would be sympathetic to the oppressed and give everyone his right his right” during the reign of Khedive Tawfiq, the sixth ruler of Egypt from the Alawite family, whose death is commemorated today as He died on January 7, 1892.

Abdeen demonstration

As Egyptian officers grew increasingly aware of injustice in the army, they took action. On the ninth of September 1881, the military demonstration of army officers led by Ahmed Orabi took place in front of Abdin Palace. Al-Rafa’i tells that Khedive Tawfiq asked Orabi about his requests, and Orabi replied: “Isolating the Ministry of Riyad Pasha, forming the House of Representatives, and informing the number of the army to the number specified in Royal Firmas.

The Khedive said: “You have no right to all these requests, and I am the Khedive of the country and I work as I want.”

Then the Khedive returned to the palace, and the Khedive did not soon acquiesce to Orabi’s demands, because the entire army supports it, and the Khedive has no power to rely on. Orabi, Minister of War.

colonial plans

In May 1882, with the escalation of the dispute between the Khedive and the Ministry, England and France agreed to intervene and send their fleet to Alexandria to conduct a naval demonstration, as they saw Egypt in a revolution that called for intervention, and foreign battleships began to arrive in Alexandria on May 19, 1882, according to Al-Rafei.

England and France addressed Egypt in the language of official threats, and requested the resignation of Al-Baroudi and the departure of Orabi from Egypt, and Al-Rafi’i believes that “if Orabi accepted these proposals and left the country, this would have been a sacrifice from him in order to avoid armed foreign interference, and to leave them at least in a better situation, and easier than His departure from her after the defeat of Al-Tal Al-Kabeer.

Alexandria massacre

Foreigners began migrating from Cairo to Alexandria, and the city was filled with them, and on June 11, 1882, the Alexandria massacre occurred, after a quarrel between a Maltese of an English national and a local, following a dispute over the fare of riding a donkey, a huge quarrel broke out, the soldiers slowed to intervene to stop it .

Al-Rafei estimates the number of dead at 49 – 38 of them are foreigners and the rest are locals – and believes that the presence of the English and French fleets is the main reason for the massacre, “their presence stirred up thoughts and upset the hearts of the Egyptians on the Europeans in general.”

On July 11, 1882, the English fleet began striking Alexandria, and the people’s dedication to defending the city, but the war was a war of cannons, forts and battleships, so they made all they could of sacrifice and daring, and Orabi withdrew from the field to Kafr al-Dawwar to reorganize his army.

The movie “Orabi .. Between heroism and disobedience” – produced by Al Jazeera Documentary – reviewed the story, noting that the Egyptian army was not ready for a military confrontation, and that an English battalion came down to take Khedive Tawfiq from the Raml Palace to the Ras al-Tin Palace in the protection of the British, which confirmed the bias The Khedive of the English who succeeded in capturing Alexandria.

Fatwa on betraying the Khedive

The Khedive insisted on isolating Orabi and took him “to evacuate Alexandria without resistance, then defended the intentions of the British to occupy Alexandria, and that the purpose of it was to maintain security,” according to Al-Rafi’i.

Orabi al-Murabit in his camp in Kafr al-Dawwar did not care about the Khedive’s order, and he was sent to the General Assembly to consider the decision to dismiss him. Among the members of the association – according to Al-Rafi’i – sheikhs from Al-Azhar, the Coptic patriarch, the rabbi of the Jews, 3 princes, many representatives, judges, and others.

Imam Muhammad Abdo recited the Khedive’s orders and Orabi’s publications, and a legal fatwa was read from the Sheikh of Al-Azhar, Sheikh Muhammad Al-Ayesh, Sheikh Hassan Al-Adawi, and Sheikh Muhammad Abu Al-Ela Al-Khalafa accusing the Khedive of treason, and “the Khedive’s passing away from religion for siding with the army that fights the country,” and the opinions agreed. On the refusal to isolate Orabi, according to Al-Rafei.

De Lesseps trick

Orabi decided to bridge the Suez Canal to block the way for the English fleet, but Ferdinand De Lesseps, who had obtained the concession to dig and operate the Suez Canal, promised Orabi not to allow the English to cross the canal.

On September 13, 1882, the Battle of Al-Tal Al-Kabeer took place, in which the British defeated the Urabi army. Country.

Revolution failed

Al-Rafi’i believes that the most important reasons for the failure of the Urabi Revolution is the division between the ranks of the Urabis and Khedive Tawfiq, which made the country two warring camps, the revolution camp and the Khedive camp.

The movie “Orabi .. between heroism and disobedience” presented the reasons for failure such as rumors, betrayal of the Khedive, accusing Orabi of disobedience, betrayal of De Lesseps and the Circassians and others, in addition to the colonial plans to occupy Egypt.

Tawfik’s betrayal

The journalist Ibrahim Issa confirms that Tawfiq was a traitor before the arrival of the British. He tied Egypt up with great debts, as his mind came up with a major calamity, as his father Ismail sold Egypt’s shares in the Suez Canal Company, and Tawfiq sold Egypt’s share of the channel’s profits (15%) at a cheap price. To give up the last thread linking Egypt and the Canal, and add that Tawfiq was loyal to the English.


Although some accused Khedive Tawfiq of fighting the Urabi revolution and causing it to the British colonization of Egypt, others believe that Tawfiq was concerned with the internal affairs of the country such as education, so he established the Dome School at his own expense, and organized the allocations for the Khedivial family, and many banks and companies were established during his reign, the most important of which are tram companies And the American Joint Stock Company to connect the telephone between Cairo and Alexandria.

Tawfiq also issued a list of civil servants that guarantees them their pension rights, and added it to the lists of royal and military pensions, according to the website. Egyptian presidency ومن “today’s news“.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.