“The Shining Star” .. Are the poetic seas that Al-Farahidi came up with still effective in the Arabic poem?

The critic Jassem Al-Khalidi believes that despite the feeling of some poets of the need to bring about a major change in the structure of the poem; They “did not touch the rhythm decisively, and they continued to revolve around formal matters that do not constitute value.”

Karbala- Al-Khalil bin Ahmed bin Amr bin Tamim Al-Farahidi is almost the Arab world who was able to accomplish a historical act among non-Arab grammarians who contributed to activating the great importance of the Arabic language.

He is the teacher nicknamed the shining star, who was taught by many Arabic scholars, and he developed the science of prosody and studied poetic rhythm with what was known as the Khalilian weights, which was considered a dictionary of Arabic poetry. But the question is, are the weights of performances still the same in the nature of Arabic poetry? Is it possible to count them as seas that time cannot make them dead or retreating in front of the wave of modern poetry or prose poetry?

His birth and knowledge

Al-Farahidi is a poet and grammarian. He was born in the city of Basra in southern Iraq (and it was said in Oman) in the year 100 AH – 718 AD, and he died in the year 170 AH – 786 AD, at the age of 70 years.

His nickname is Abu Abd al-Rahman. He is one of the most important imams of language and literature, and he studied with Abdullah bin Abi Ishaq al-Hadrami. He studied music and rhythm in Arabic poetry in order to be able to adjust its weights. He discovered the 16 poetic seas, which he called “the long-long-simple-simple” and known as the mixed, Al-Wafer-complete-Al-Hazj-Al-Raml-Raml-Al-Mussarh-Light-The Present-Short, and it is called the Seven because it is composed of seven parts in its origin. To be a balance for poets in writing their poems and to show the correctness of its evils.

He is an encyclopedic scientist and researcher, and despite the fact that he lived as an ascetic in torn clothes, but he was passionate about renewal in the Arabic language, and he was the first to introduce a dictionary of the Arabic language and called it “The Book of the Eye”, and presented the system of diacritical marks in the Arabic text, and his linguistic theories influenced the development of Persian performances Turkish and Urdu.

Some described him as the “shining star” of the Basra Nahaat School. He was described as the first pioneer of lexicography. Al-Farahidi was taught by linguists, including Sibawayh, Al-Layth bin Al-Muzaffar Al-Kinani, Al-Asma’i, Al-Kisa’i, Al-Nadr bin Shamil, Harun bin Musa Al-Nahwi, Wahb bin Jarir, and Ali bin Nasr Al-Jahdhami. It was narrated on the authority of Ayoub Al-Sakhtiani, Asim Al-Ahwal, Al-Awwam bin Hawshab, Ghaleb Al-Qattan, and Abdullah bin Abi Ishaq.

Al-Khalidi: The column poem is still the most dominant after the decline of the Tafeila poem (Al-Jazeera)

percussion efficacy

Al-Farahidi, when he was walking in the Saffarin market, heard the sound of their hammers clicking on a distinctive tune, and the idea of ​​the performances upon which Arabic poetry depends came to his mind. He would go to his house and hang down to the well and start making sounds in different tones so that he could determine the appropriate tone for each poem. He has been reading Arab poetry and studying rhythm and rhythm in order to arrange them according to their melodies.

Critic Dr. Jassim Al-Khalidi says that “the theory of rhythm that Al-Farahidi came up with is still effective in Arabic poetry despite the long centuries that the Arabic poem has gone through.”

Although some poets felt the need to bring about a major change in the structure of the poem, but – as Al-Khalidi says – “they did not touch the rhythm decisively, and they continued to revolve around formal matters that were not of value. And Abdul-Wahhab Al-Bayati and Baland Al-Haidari, they did not leave the activation of Hebron, even if the demolition shovel affected it.

And whether rhythm is still active in Arabic poetry, Al-Khalidi says that reading the Arab poetic scene indicates that “the column poem is still the most dominant after the decline of the ta’feelah poem and the decline in writing the prose poem after the chance poets rode its wave in a way that affected the quality of what he wrote.” .

He adds another reason; Is that “the poem of the column has changed its dress after the appearance of the poets of the poem of poetry, who made an important shift in the body of the inherited Arabic poem.”

Dr. Ammar Al-Yasiri - The Arab self has been emotionally tamed by receiving the Farahidi weight Source: Al JazeeraAl-Yasiri believes that the Arab self has been emotionally domesticated to receive the Farahidi weight (Al-Jazeera)

Inheritance and contemporary

Al-Farahidi’s nickname became familiar, and even became a legendary figure and was described as an outstanding genius in the Islamic world. Rather, it was said that Sibawayh’s book, in which 42 writers participated, was based on principles and topics on their counterparts in Al-Farahidi’s writings. Sibawayh was quoted 608 times, more than any other source. The two are historically considered the oldest and most important figures in the official record of Arabic grammar.

Critic Dr. Ammar al-Yasiri says that “since the first inception of the theory of literary genres, poetic forms have witnessed great structural transformations,” and calls for a follow-up to ancient Arabic poetry to note “the episodic transformations that al-Farahidi theorized, then added al-Akhfash al-Khub. This is all a city of origin.”

Al-Yasiri added, however, that “experimentation and renewal tried to form syllabaries and formations close to the original and open to the meaning, which made them move at a pace imitating the classical scene for the sake of continuous permanence that works on social communication,” and that the Arab self has been emotionally domesticated to receive the Farahidi weight as “associated with occasions.” Whether it was praise, or lament, or fervor, or war, the prose poem did not form a displacement structure for the vertical form.

Al-Yasiri adds that “the need for the prose poem is due to the search for different contemporary structures, building and meaning from the column.” At the same time, he believes that the poetic column “formed the inherited tendency” given that the Arab self is still living the problem of inheritance and contemporary, which is what made – according to him – “The column survives these successive centuries.”

***For internal use only*** Dr. Sabah Al-Tamim-Al-Farahidi put a marble frame for the Arabic poem, and it became an identity for it. Source: Al-JazeeraAl-Tamimi: Al-Farahidi put a marble frame for the Arabic poem, and it became an identity for it (Al-Jazeera)

Identity with magic letters

Al-Farahidi did not impose the science of verse on the rest of the poets and did not ask them to follow its rules without question, and it was even said that he violated the rules that he set himself on purpose at times.

Critic Dr. Sabah Al-Tamimi says that “it was narrated from a scholar that he said, “The world ate with the knowledge of Hebron and his books, and he is in his possession and no one feels it.” He presented this saying to read the sober heritage mind, given that the image of Hebron is still repeated with every well-balanced poem because it He placed a marble frame for the Arabic poem, and became an identity for it, which is still famous in the face of the Interpol of world literature, in any attempt to delete it, domesticate it, or erase its impact.

Al-Tamimi adds by saying that it is “an identity written in magical, indelible letters,” based on the fact that the seas of Arabic poetry are still “breathing despite all attempts to break, suffocate, shift, transform and austere.” Thus, he calls them “the Khalili fossils that lived in golden geological times.” impervious to burial, exemption, and erasure.”

However, he adds that the weights of the performances do not represent the spirit of poetry. Because “poetry is loose and has no identity and no limit to define it. As for the Arabic poem, it is the performances of Hebron.”

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