The implementation of the security arrangements agreement for the Darfur track begins… Will it stop the bleeding of war in Sudan?
A day after the head of the Sudanese Sovereign Council, Abdel-Fattah Al-Burhan, from El-Fasher, North Darfur, announced the actual start of the security arrangements included in the Sudan Peace Agreement, the Third Front, Tamazuj, which was signed by the other parties along with the main armed movements to the agreement, accused the joint Supreme Council meeting security arrangements by excluding it.
The movement warned of “the consequences of overcoming it,” and said that “this will once again enter the Darfur region into divisions that will not provide an opportunity for unity and sustainable development.”
This tone indicates the possibility of the continuing eruption of the situation in the region, which did not calm down even after the armed movements signed a peace agreement with the central government in the capital of South Sudan, Juba on October 3, 2020.
The Supreme Joint Defense Council to monitor the Juba Peace Agreement had held a meeting, on Wednesday, in the capital of North Darfur, El Fasher, in the presence of Al-Burhan, the commander of the Rapid Support Forces, Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo “Hemedti” and the leaders of the main armed movements in the Darfur track to discuss developments in the region and start the process of security arrangements, which are long overdue. Admittedly, the proof.
What is the Juba Peace Agreement?
After the fall of the “Salvation” regime headed by Omar al-Bashir on April 11, 2019, the Revolutionary Front, one of the parties to the Sudan Call, which signed the Declaration of the Forces of Freedom and Change, refused to sign the political declaration and the constitutional document with the military component that took power after the fall of al-Bashir.
The Revolutionary Front preferred to take another path, as an armed force with additional demands, some of which are related to ensuring the arrangements for its forces and others related to its regions. This led, after the formation of the first transitional government, to negotiations that took place in Juba and under the auspices of its government and with the participation of regional and international parties.
The negotiations took the approach of regional tracks, in which the “Sudan Liberation Army/Minni Arko Minawi”, the “Sudanese Justice and Equality Movement” headed by Jibril Ibrahim, and the “Sudan Liberation Forces Gathering” participated in them, along with the “Sudan Liberation Army” movement, the Transitional Council, led by Al-Hadi Idris, and the “Sudanese Alliance”.
The “People’s Movement – Revolutionary Front” headed by Malik Agar represented the regions of South Kordofan and Blue Nile, in addition to the path of eastern Sudan, central Sudan and northern Sudan. And joined the agreement some other movements from Darfur.
Why the security arrangements in the tracks of Darfur and the two regions?
The armed struggle movements in Darfur and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement led by Agar represent the forces that actually bear arms, and they are the target in the Juba Peace Agreement with the provision of security arrangements without the other tracks. The Agar Movement inaugurated the beginning of the security arrangements for the Sudan People’s Liberation Army in the Blue Nile at the beginning of last September, and in the Ruwaikiba camp in South Kordofan, on the 30th of last September, in the presence of the Sudanese Minister of Defense at the time, Yassin Ibrahim.
The security arrangements related to the two areas included 60 articles, and aimed to build a unified Sudanese army according to the provisions of the agreement.
The Darfur track is the most complex in implementing the security arrangements for the multiplicity of armed movements that signed the agreement.
The terms of the security arrangements in this track consist of 36 items, and included the formation of a joint higher military committee, which includes, in addition to representatives of the Sudanese parties, representatives of the mediation countries, Chad, the African Union and a UN representative. It also aims to build a single professional national army with a new unified military doctrine.
What are the stages of implementing security arrangements?
According to the Juba Peace Agreement, the agreement passes through its announced implementation timetables in 4 phases:
- Continued cessation of hostilities for humanitarian purposes leading to a permanent ceasefire.
- Implementation of the permanent ceasefire and comprehensive security arrangements and the implementation of the integration program in the military institutions and security services.
- Implementation of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes.
- Implementation of the reform, development and modernization plan for the military and security services.
- It stipulates that the cease-fire shall enter into force within 72 hours after the signing of the agreement.
Why did the armed movements forces enter the cities?
The parties to the Darfur track agreed to define the assembly areas for forces to be outside the residential areas at appropriate distances and to be 50 kilometers from the international borders, and to train and integrate the forces within 15 months of the signing of the agreement. However, large numbers of armed struggle forces entered the cities and the capital, Khartoum.
In a previous interview with Al Jazeera Net, the strategic and security expert, Major General Amin Ismail, said that the request for the armed movements’ forces to leave Khartoum and the main cities is a treatment for fundamental mistakes that occurred in the Juba peace negotiations, which were represented in not specifying the movements’ equipment and numbers of forces, which he was asked to submit statements of this in areas The assembly that is not specified is also.
He pointed out that it had recently been located in Khartoum North, East of the Nile and other places.
Are there reasons for delaying the implementation of security arrangements?
The first challenge facing the implementation of the Juba Peace Agreement, including the Security Arrangements Agreement, was the funding of approximately 1.3 billion dollars, of which the Sudanese government was required to provide 750 million dollars.
Observers say that the cost of mergers and demobilizations is very high, which will put great pressure on the state treasury, especially as the armed movements are trying to inflate the numbers of their forces to obtain the largest possible compensation.
Before the overthrow of Hamdok’s government, the head of the UN mission in Sudan, Volker Peretz, told the Security Council and the international community the importance of providing financial and logistical support for the implementation of security arrangements for peace in Juba.
A source indicated to Al-Jazeera Net that one of the problems facing the implementation of security arrangements is the number of officers and senior ranks in the armed movements compared to the number of individuals, which contradicts the accepted organization of armies, in addition to military equipment.
Where is the rapid support forces from this scene?
Despite the great difference in views about the nature of the Rapid Support Forces, and the demands to integrate them into the national army, the Juba Peace Agreement considers them within the system of the official military institution, along with the Sudanese armed forces, police forces and the General Intelligence Service.
In his conversations, Al-Burhan affirms that the Rapid Support Forces are part of the armed forces and are under its command.
Al-Burhan recently formed the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, which includes the commander of the Rapid Support Forces and his deputy.